Having reviewed the general science of crop pictures, we will now address some of their more specific aspects. For example, they often show long-forgotten Mayan calendars that were once used in ancient central America. Sometimes they even show modern binary codes which have been based on those calendars. A strange mixture of past and present: what could it all mean?
Those mysterious crop artists keep time in our modern era using the Mayan Long Count or Calendar Round
This crop circle matter is not nearly as simple as it may have at first appeared. Who could those pictures be coming from: friendly extra-terrestrials, or other people like us in our own past? And why would they be trying to tell us that our current world age is coming to an end? Further study reveals yet another interesting clue: those mysterious crop artists seem to keep time in our modern era using either of two calendars from ancient central America: the Mayan 5200-year Long Count, or the Mayan 52-year Calendar Round (see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mesoamerican_Long_Count_calendar or www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/HistTopics/Mayan_mathematics.html).
We saw above how a detailed illustration of the Mayan Long Count calendar appeared at Silbury Hill on August 2, 2004. Then just last summer on July 15, 2008, the Mayan Long Count calendar was used once again, to remind us about an upcoming date of December 21-23, 2012 when their current Fifth Sun will come to an end. To be specific, they showed us a precise and accurate description of our nine-planet solar system on that particular day, in order to remind us in universal, astronomical symbols that anyone living on Earth today would be able to understand (see www.cropcircleconnector.com/2008/aveburymanor/aveburymanor2008a.html or www.nyakonakar.com/cropcircles/cropsen.html):
slide 17: Avebury Manor 2008 (photo credits to Steve Alexander and Nyako Nakar)
There was a brief race among researchers worldwide to post the first correct astronomical solution for Avebury Manor on the web, and several workers solved it simultaneously. How often do we get to match our wits against super-intelligent extra-terrestrials? In any case, one can conclude after studying both crop pictures: Silbury Hill 2004 or Avebury Manor 2008, that the Mayan Long Count calendar must be very important to whomever is sending us such mysterious and intricate messages, across vast distances of space or time.
Now there was also another famous calendar used in ancient central America called the "Calendar Round", which lasted for only 52 years in any calendar period, rather than for 5200 years. It was used for more everyday purposes than the Long Count, which was primarily ceremonial. That second Mayan calendar was based on the astronomical cycles of planet Venus as seen from Earth, which could be seen clearly with the naked eye from near-equatorial latitudes in ancient central America.
Any single orbital cycle of Venus about our Sun lasts for 584 days or 1.6 years as seen from Earth. During that time, Venus moves relative to the background stars by approximately 216 degrees, or by three-fifths of a 360-degree turn (see http://southmovement.alphalink.com.au/commentaries/Pattern.html). Hence after five cycles or 5 x 1.6 = 8.0 years, Venus will move relative to those background stars by a total of 5 x 216 = 1080 degrees, which equals three full circular turns. In other words, Venus will come right back to the place in our sky where it started, eight years earlier, as a simple kind of astronomical clock.
That is how the ancient Olmecs, Mayans or Aztecs were able to count long periods of time in a highly reliable fashion, long ago in central America, even though they did not have access to modern digital clocks or computers. They simply watched bright Venus as it rose or set in the evening or morning sky, say from their famous observatory called El Caracol, and counted the years accordingly (see www.exploratorium.edu/ancientobs/chichen/HTML/caracol.html).
That eight-year cycle of Venus has been depicted in English crop pictures on many occasions: for example at Cranford St. Andrew on August 1, 1992 or at Bythorn on September 3, 1993 (see www.cropcircle.tv/archives/1992/bailey92.html or www.lucypringle.co.uk/photos/1993/uk1993de.shtml). In both of those early crop pictures, planet Venus was depicted as a five-pointed star, in order to symbolize the regular pentagonal shape of its orbit as seen from Earth:
slide 18: Cranford St. Andrew 1992, Venus pentagram (photo credits to Peter Sorenson)
On other occasions, say at East Kennett on July 15, 2000, planet Venus has been depicted as a "heart", because that is the detailed shape of its orbit during any single 1.6-year orbital cycle as seen from Earth (see www.lucypringle.co.uk/photos/2000/uk2000bx.shtml or www.youtube.com/watch?v=4nI3Ky8mhj8).
More recently at Chute Causeway on July 26, 2007, those crop artists showed us a series of five Venus pentagrams linked together (see www.lucypringle.co.uk/photos/2007/uk2007bn.shtml). Since any single five-pointed star requires eight years of calendar time, as confirmed by eight small dots along the outside of each small star, then any collection of five stars should require 5 x 8 = 40 years:
slide 19: Chute Causeway 2007, one large star (photo credits to John Montgomery)
Yet for the Mayans, their most favoured long-term cycle of Venus was a 104-year period called the Calendar Round. They would count 13 successive 8-year cycles of Venus that extend over a fairly long period of 13 x 8 = 104 years, and by so doing, they could keep track of calendar time accurately for more than one of our centuries! Their 104-year Calendar Round was shown symbolically in crops at Beckhampton on August 26, 2002 (see www.cropcircle.tv/archives/2002/Beckhampton/beckhampton2002a.html):
slide 20: Beckhampton 2002 (photo credits to Steve Alexander)
There two five-pointed stars, each symbolizing five orbital cycles of Venus, were accompanied in any outer section by 13 scales. Hence the total number of Venus cycles may be counted easily as 5 x 13 = 65, while the total number of calendar years may be calculated as 65 x 1.6 or 13 x 8 = 104. In terms of its detailed orbit, planet Venus moves around the Sun by 216 degrees (as seen from Earth) once in every 1.6 years: say from arm "1" to arm "2", or from arm "2" to arm "3". Hence its long-term orbit traces out the shape of a five-pointed star or pentagram. Other analysts have commented similarly:
"A new crop formation appeared at Beckhampton in 2002. Its pentagram is a figure traced out by planet Venus over five of its 584-day orbital cycles about the Sun, which require a total of eight Earth years to complete. That picture also shows 13 scales between each pair of arms, to yield a total of 5 x 13 = 65. Now 65 cycles of Venus equal one Calendar Round of 104 years, or two half Calendar Rounds of 52 years" (adapted from www.diagnosis2012.co.uk/cro.htm).
To summarize, any time period of 104 years was counted in ancient central America as one Calendar Round, and was known to match 5 x 13 = 65 orbital cycles of Venus. Often the Mayans would divide that long time period of 104 years into two equal parts of 52 years, in which case any half Calendar Round would match 32.5 orbital cycles of Venus. When a comprehensive study of many different crop pictures is made, it turns out that the Venus-based Calendar Round has been used by those mysterious crop artists more than any other scheme, for keeping time in our modern era (see www.cropcircleconnector.com/anasazi/time2007c.html).
Sometimes they even show the Mayan Sun-Venus calendar in binary notation, using a modern computer format
We have just deduced a very important clue regarding the possible origin of modern crop pictures. Thus, the unknown creators of those pictures seem literally obsessed with ancient Mayan schemes for the counting of time. Indeed, we see the same kind of obsession with calendars when we study the ancient architecture or culture from that region, for example the Pyramid of Kulkulcan (or Quetzalcoatl) from Chichen Itza (see www.world-mysteries.com/chichen_kukulcan.htm).
Now any single orbital cycle of Venus lasts for 584 days or 1.6 years as seen from Earth. So even if we divide such a Venus cycle into two halves of 292 days or 0.8 years each, thereby matching the periodic appearance of Venus as a bright star in our morning or evening skies, still it will last for a fairly long time of ten months. So what do those crop artists do, when they wish to tell us about intervals of time that are much shorter, say only weeks or days?
What they have done is extremely clever, and completely unprecedented in any archeological sense regarding ancient central America. Thus, they sometimes adapt the Mayan Sun-Venus calendar so that it reads in base-2 or binary notation, just as for a modern computer! So far they have shown us three different crop pictures from the years 2002, 2005 or 2008, which encode a Mayan Sun-Venus calendar in binary notation. We learned from Crabwood of August 15, 2002 that they could use binary notation in modern 8-bit ASCII format, to send us brief text messages in English (see www.physi.uni-heidelberg.de/~petracek/glyphs/about_uk02dl.html or www.youtube.com/watch?v=_KoR2t-iM9k&feature=related). But who would have guessed that they would use binary notation in the sense of an ancient Mayan calendar?
(a) The uppercase-lowercase code from Crabwood 2002. Their first use of binary notation within a Sun-Venus calendar came in the form of an uppercase-lowercase code within the primary text of the Crabwood message. Some words from its ASCII text were anomalously capitalized, whereas others remained lowercase. One researcher commented at the time (see www.martinkeitel.net/cropcircles/articles/alien4.html):
"If we look at this message from a human perspective, we can see that its plain English text is only the surface. It uses very short sentences, with uppercase characters here and lowercase characters there. It uses an ampersand symbol '&' instead of the word 'and'. It includes extra non-ASCII digits in certain characters. Doesn't all of that suggest there may be another message hidden underneath?"
Consider for example its first phrase, "Beware the bearers of FALSE gifts". Why is the word "FALSE" capitalized? Did those crop artists simply make a mistake?
"Beware the bearers of FALSE gifts & their BROKEN PROMISES.Much PAIN but still time.BELIEVE.There is GOOD out there.We oPpose DECEPTION.COnduit CLOSING/"
No chance! Thus in addition to the primary ASCII message shown at Crabwood, its anomalous uppercase-lowercase code gave us yet another subtle message, by a clever strategy known as the bilateral alphabet. In other words, when that series of 25 words is translated into binary notation, where each lowercase word = 1 and each uppercase word = 0 (the same as for ASCII in its third digit), then they provide for a new set of 25 binary numbers as:
Beware the bearers of FALSE = 11110
gifts & their BROKEN PROMISES Much = 11001
PAIN but still time BELIEVE = 01110
There is GOOD out there = 11011
We oPpose DECEPTION COnduit CLOSING = 11010
Thus its first five words "Beware the bearers of FALSE" translate into binary as 11110. The entire 25-word message translates likewise as 11110 11001 01110 11011 11010. And since there are 25 new binary numbers, grouped logically into five sets of five, they may be converted easily into base-32 as 30-25-14-27-26.
Here for example 11110 equals 16 + 8 + 4 + 2 + 0 = 30, while 11001 equals 16 + 8 + 0 + 0 +1 = 25, or 01110 equals 0 + 8 + 4 +2 + 0 = 14. Finally, those five numbers from base-32 may be switched into a certain length of time, using the 52-year Mayan Sun-Venus calendar, by one further brief calculation as (see www.cropcircleconnector.com/anasazi/time2007o.html):
52 x (30 / 32 + 25 / 32 x 32 + 14 / 32 x 32 x 32 + .....) = 50.04 years
What might be the significance of 50.04 years in the context of Crabwood as a whole? Well, that is precisely how many years separate its date of appearance on August 15, 2002 from another important date of July 19-26, 1952, when a fleet of unfriendly grey aliens flew over Washington, D.C. and terrified the whole country (see www.ufocasebook.com/washingtondc1952.html or http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1952_Washington_D.C._UFO_incident). The unpleasant visage of a three-star, grey alien general was shown nearby, just in case anyone had any remaining doubts (see www.lucypringle.co.uk/photos/2002/uk2002dl.shtml#pic4).
Hence in that 2002 crop picture, some benevolent extra-terrestrials told us plainly to "beware of the greys" as a less spiritually evolved alien race than themselves. They also reassured us that they are "spiritually good", and that we can trust them. Yet because of the current UFO cover-up, not many people on Earth today believe in the reality of grey aliens, and so their important message was not generally understood (see www.ufoevidence.org/documents/doc1155.htm).
(b) The Comet Holmes code from Wayland's Smithy 2005. Their second use of binary notation within a Sun-Venus calendar appeared at Wayland's Smithy on August 9, 2005 (see www.lucypringle.co.uk/photos/2005/uk2005cl.shtml#pic2). Its purpose there was to inform us that a newly-exploded Comet Holmes would make a close approach or conjunction in Earth's sky to a bright star Mirfak in the constellation Perseus, two years later on November 21, 2007. The details of such a calendar calculation will be given below. Here we only need to understand how they drew specific patterns in the crops, to specify a certain series of binary numbers:
slide 21: two binary codes from Wayland's Smithy 2005 (photo credits to Crop Circle Connector)
As shown above on the left, each inner quadrant of the Wayland's Smithy picture contains a complex series of bars and spaces. Yet only two of those quadrants are unique, because the entire picture possesses left-right mirror symmetry. Each of those bars or spaces represent binary numbers as "1" or "0", and two broad arrows along each side of the center tell us in which direction to read them. Two sets of eight cusps at lower center tell us to read them in 2 x 8 or base-16. Twenty large spirals around its outer perimeter are traditional Mayan symbols for time, and tell us to use a Mayan calendar with 20 days per month. A large crescent at its very center represents planet Venus, which was high and bright in the sky on that same evening. It tells us to use a Sun-Venus calendar.
Now when we look more closely at those bars and spaces, using two broad arrows to decide in which direction to read, we can quickly identify two different sets of binary numbers in base-16 as either 14-5-11-5-14 or 13-10-7-10-13. For example, the two outermost rows of bars and spaces read either "1-1-1-0" which converts to "8 + 4 + 2 + 0 = 14", or else "1-1-0-1" which converts to "8 + 4 + 0 + 1 = 13". So far, so good. But we still have to switch those base-16 numbers into modern calendar dates!
As will be explained below, one of those two sets of binary numbers may be converted from the ancient Mayan Sun-Venus calendar into our own modern calendar as "August 9, 2005", which was simply the day when that crop picture appeared. The other set of numbers may be converted from a Mayan Sun-Venus calendar into our modern calendar as "November 21, 2007", which was the day when a newly exploded Comet Holmes would make a close approach in Earth's sky to the brightest star Mirfak in Perseus, two years later (see www.cropcircleconnector.com/anasazi/time2007g.html or www.cropcircleconnector.com/anasazi/time2007h.html).
(c) The 2012 code from Secklendof 2008. Their third use of binary notation within a Sun-Venus calendar appeared at Secklendorf, Germany on June 23, 2008 (see www.cropcircleconnector.com/inter2008/germany/Secklendorf/Secklendorf2008a.html). Its purpose there was to remind us of several important and predictable astronomical events that will occur between when that crop picture appeared, and the end of the Mayan Long Count calendar on December 21-23, 2012. The binary codes shown at Secklendorf were rather simple, and used symbols such as "1-1-1-1-space-1-1-1-0" to specify integers such as "127" in base-128.
END OF PART II